Intertexts and Allusions in The Sopranos

Compiled by David Lavery (Seasons 1-5) and

Sarah Caitlin Lavery (Season 6)

This compendium brings together previously published catalogs from This Thing of Ours (Seasons 1-3) and Reading The Sopranos (Seasons 4-5) and new materials from The Essential Sopranos Reader).

 

Intertext/Allusion

Context

Annotation

54

Speaking of A. J.'s new career goal of becoming an event planner, Carmela notes that he watches that Mike Meyers film—54–about Steve Rubell all the time (5.13).

1998 film, directed by Mark Christopher, about the trendy Club 54 in New York.

A&E

While staying with Tony in the hospital, Carmela watches a special on A&E called "Growing up Soprano" featuring an interview with A. J. (6.3).

A television network which originally focused programming on biographies, documentaries, and drama series (especially crime dramas and mysteries).

Adams, Grizzly

After their wine heist, Christopher calls one of the bikers they stole from "that Grizzly Adams motherfucker" (6.9).

(1812-1860) A famed United States outdoorsman and a performer in P. T. Barnum's shows, later popularized by a television series starring Dan Haggerty in 1977.

Albatross

Johnny Boy Soprano calls Livia a "fucking albicore around my neck" when she refuses to consider a move to Nevada.

In Coleridge's "Rhyme of the Ancient Mariner," a sailor kills an albatross, bringing a curse upon him and his ship.

Albinoni, Tomaso

Richard LaPenna suggests his music would make the perfect score for the clash between Native American and Italian protestors on Columbus Day (4.3).

(1671–1751) influential Italian composer.

Ali, Mohammed

At the construction site, the boys ask Finn to settle a debate about who would win in an in-their-prime fight between Ali and Tyson (5.9).

(1942–). American boxer, born Cassius Clay, one of the greatest heavyweight champions of the 20th Century and one of the most famous athletes in the world.

All debts public and private”

The title of the first episode of Season Four (4.1).

These words are to be found on US currency.

All Happy Families”

The title of a fifth season episode (5.4).

The first sentence of Tolstoy's Anna Karenina is “All happy families resemble one another, each unhappy family is unhappy in its own way.”

Al-Qaeda

Johnny Sack blames a failed Vespa theft on increased port security because of it (5.10).

The shadowy Islamic terrorist network, lead by Osama Bid Laden, behind the 911 attacks.

“American Girl"

Carmela plays this song for Tony to keep him engaged while in a coma. She tells him they played it in Tony's car an entire weekend at Long Beach Island (6.2).

The second single from Tom Petty and the Heartbreakers' self-titled debut album. The song is believed to be about a girl who committed suicide by jumping from the Beaty Towers dormitory at the University of Florida in Gainesville, Florida, where Petty grew up.

American Idol

At Bobby's funeral, Meadow and friends discuss this show, questioning whether or not recording artist Jennifer Hudson was the winner. Carlo's son Jason comments that "Jason G." was the winner of Italian American Idol and that he could say "'fuck' more times in a sentence than any other contestant" (6.21).

A reality competition to find new solo musical talent, created by Simon Fuller. It debuted in 2002 on the Fox network and has since become one of the most popular shows on American television, with similar shows created in countless countries.

Anarchy, State, Utopia

Larry Arthur, a witness in Matt Bevilaqua's murder, sits in his living room reading Anarchy, State and Utopia just prior to learning that he will be testifying against a mob boss (and developing instant amnesia about what he saw) (2.10).

Work of political philosophy by Robert Nozick, originally published in 1977.

Andretti, Mario

Tony calls AJ, playing a car-racing video game "Andretti" (1.4).

(1940–) Famous race car driver, born in Italy.

Animal Farm

Mr. Wexler explains to Carmela that A. J. has turned in a “surprisingly cogent” draft on it (5.6).

Anti-Stalinist allegory by British writer George Orwell, published in 1944.

Aqua Teen Hunger Force

A. J. watches this cartoon while battling a hangover after a night out clubbing (6.8).

An animated television series shown on Cartoon Network as part of its Adult Swim late-night programming block, following three anthropomorphic fast food items and their next-door neighbor in suburban New Jersey.

A-Team, The

Adriana watches it on TV while she waits for Christopher to come home (4.7).

American television series (1983–1987), created by David Chase's friend and collaborator Stephen J. Cannell, starring George Peppard and Mr. T.

Atkins

Vito Spatafore asks Agent Dwight Harris if this diet is the reason for his weight loss. Harris responds that it's instead due to a parasite he caught while serving the Terrorism Department in Pakistan (6.1).

A low-carbohydrate diet created by Dr. Robert Atkins. He later popularized the Atkins diet in a series of books, starting with Dr. Atkins' Diet Revolution in 1972. The diet is the driving force behind the "low-carb craze" during the new millennium.

Baccall, Lauren

Christopher and Little Carmine run into this actress while in Los Angeles trying to garner interest in their film project. Christopher tells her he loved her in The Haves and the Have-Nots and later robs her for her awards' show swag (6.7).

(1924- ) An American film and stage legend known for her husky voice and perhaps best known for being a film noir leading lady in such films as The Big Sleep (1946) and Dark Passage (1947).

Bailey's Irish Cream

Christopher warns his mother to stay off it (4.1).

A popular liqueur.

Baldwin, Daniel

 This actor plays the mob boss in Christopher's art-imitates-life mafia film Cleaver (6.14).

(1960- ) An American actor, producer and director and the second oldest of the four Baldwin brothers, all of whom are actors.

Barrymore, John

At Uncle Junior's Feech greets Tony with “Hey, John Barrymore” (5.2).

(1882–1942) Distinguished American actor and ladies man, most famous for his portrayal of Hamlet.

“Bartleby”

With Rosie Aprile's depression in mind, Janice laments, “Ah, Bartleby. Ah, humanity” (4.2).

These are the last words of an 1854 novella by Herman Melville about a depressed scrivener who “would prefer not to” do anything.

Basic Instinct

Jackie Aprile, Jr. and Dino Zerilli watch the notorious Sharon Stone interrogation scene from Basic Instinct while planning a soon-to-fail heist (3.12).

1992 Paul Verhoeven film in which a detective (Michael Douglas) tracks a female serial killer (Stone).

Batali, Mario

Carmela watches Mario Eats Italy on TV while she cooks (4.8).

The famous Italian chef Mario Batali hosts Mario Eats Italy on The Food Network.

Batman

Silvio makes a reference to throwing acid in Johnny Sack's face during his trial, similar to the way that Harvey Dent was transformed into Two-Face in DC Comics' Batman universe (6.10).

Harvey Dent, formerly the District Attorney of Gotham City and an ally of Batman, goes insane and becomes the crime boss Two-Face after the left half of his face is hideously disfigured in the famous comic book series.

Bay of Pigs, The

Fran Felstein tells Tony her affair with JFK began just before the Bay of Pigs (5.7). See also Kennedy, John Fitzgerald.

Botched, secret invasion of Cuba, intended to overthrow Fidel Castro's communist rule of the Island, and one of the major failure of the Kennedy presidency.

Beatles

Father Phil and Carmela discuss Christ's teachings and The Beatles (1.5).

British rock and roll band whose music had a profound effect on cultural history.

Beatles, The

Trying to find “common ground” with A. J., Carmela makes small talk about Ringo Starr and Pete Best (5.4).

British group whose music forever changed the face of rock and roll.

Beethoven

Bobby Bacala's children watch it on TV after Sunday dinner (5.7).

1992 movie about a St. Bernard, starring Charles Grodin and Bonnie Hunt.

Bening, Annette

In Tony's “test dream” she appears as Finn's mother (5.11).

(1958–). American film actress, star of such movies as The Grifters, Bugsy, and American Beauty, and wife of actor/director Warren Beatty.

Beowulf

Addict and screenwriter JT tells the group at a Writer's Guild meeting that they are all mythologizing their inner narratives, just like Grendel in Beowulf (6.3).

An Old English epic poem of unknown authorship. It dates back from between the 8th and the early 11th century and is commonly cited as one of the most important works in Anglo-Saxon literature.

Bernhard, Sandra

Christopher gives Janeane Garofalo and Sandra Bernhard obscene Italian dialogue advice (2.7).

(1955–) Sardonic American comic and actress.

Best, Pete

See Beatles, The (5.4).

The original drummer of the Beatles.

Beverly Hillbillies

In a flashback Livia refuses to move the family to Las Vegas, claiming "Oakies and misfits, that's who goes there. Losers, the beverly hillbilly" (1.7).

American television show (1962–71) about a poor, uneducated family from the Ozarks who become millionaires after discovering oil.

Billy Budd

A. J. has to write a paper on it which leads to a later discussion about its possible gay subtext (4.12).

Posthumously published novella by Herman Melville about the fatal clash between master-at-arms Claggart, a sinister ship's officer, and an innocent sailor.

Birds, The

Tony wonders whether his watching of The Birds on TV influenced his dream of the birds making off with his penis (1.1).

1963 film by Alfred Hitchcock.

Blood, Sweat and Tears

Silvio, looking for a nowhere-to-be-found Vito, tells his wife that he just stopped by to drop off Blood, Sweat and Tears tickets with backstage passes (6.6).

An American music group, originally formed in 1967 in New York City, noted for its fusing of rock, blues, pop music, horn arrangements and jazz improvisation into a hybrid that came to be known as jazz-rock.

Body by Jake

Adriana watches an infomercial for it while waiting for Christopher to come home (4.5).

A popular American line of home exercise equipment.

Bogart, Humphrey

Humphrey Bogart's picture is on the wall in the pork store during Christopher's whack of Emil Kolar (1.1).

(1899–1957) American movie star, who got his start in gangster films.

Borat

Meadow tells A. J. she just watched this film on cable, saying "you can watch it 50 times and it's still hilarious" (6.19).

A 2006 mockumentary film, written, produced by, and starring the British comedian Sacha Baron Cohen in the title role of a fictitious Kazakh journalist traveling through the United States, recording real-life interactions with Americans.

Born Yesterday

Under Christopher's urging, JT tells Tony he based the mob boss character and his love triangle in Cleaver off of this film, which Tony later watches (6.14).

A 1950 film about a corrupt tycoon who brings his showgirl mistress with him to Washington to try to buy a Congressman.

Boss, Hugo.

"Jackie Aprile, Jr. tells Meadow, "You wanna know what I"m interested in? Men's fashion. Not the faggy part of it, but, like, to be Hugo Boss."

German designer of men's clothing.

Boyz II Men

After failing to whack Tony Soprano, two young African American hitmen are referred to as (1) "the Jamaican bobsled team"  and (2) Boyz II Men (1.12).

Popular 1990s African-American R and B boy group.

Brazelton, T. Barry

Tony expresses his anger about AJ's expulsion from Verbu20m Dei by telling Carmela that he's had enough of Brazelton (3.13).

Child psychologist, the Doctor Spock of Baby Boomers.

bris

Hesh advises Tony to "Make like a mohel. Finish his bris,"  in order to secure the agreement of motel owner Ariel (1.3).

The Jewish ceremony of circumcision.

Brown, James

Tony calls Christopher's mom "fucking James Brown" after she breaks down in tears at his funeral (6.18).

(1933-2006) "The Godfather of Soul," an American entertainer recognized as one of the most influential figures in 20th century popular music and for his feverish, emotional dancing.

Bruno Magli

Paulie's improvised shoe (made of carpet and twine) causes Chris to proclaim "Bruno Magli here!" (3.11).

Footprints left at the scene of the murder of Nicole Brown Simpson seemed to indicate a pair of Bruno Magli shoes owned by O. J. Simpson.

Brylcream

"The federal marshalls are so far up my ass I can taste Brylcream"  (2003).

Grooming product, popular into the 1960s when longer hair styles made it passé.

Bugsy

In Tony's “test dream” Annette Bening insists that “There's something Bugsy about [Tony]” (5.11).

1991 biopic about gangster Bugsy Siegel, directed by Warren Beatty, and starring Beatty and Annette Bening.

Bunche, Ralph

At a construction site Patsy Parisi attacks a bystander with a crow bar who is about to call the cops, asking the African American “Who do you think you are, Ralph Bunche or something?” (4.2).

(1904–1971). African American educator and diplomat who won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1950.

Bush, George W.

Being tested for mental competence, Uncle Junior correctly identifies the current President of the United States (4.9).

George Walker Bush became the 43rd President of the United States in 2001.

Caan, James

A Mohawk tells Silvio that Iron Eyes Cody's possible non-Indianness matters about as much as his not being Italian (4.3).

(1940–). Jewish American actor best known for his role as Sonny Corleone in The Godfather.

“Called the English teacher Daddio

Entering a meeting with Mr. Wegler, Tony says “Let me guess. He [A. J.] called the English teacher daddio?” (5.4).

Lyrics from the hit 1959 song “Charlie Brown” by The Coasters.

Camelot

The title of a fifth season episode is “In Camelot” (5.7).

Originally the legendary palace of King Arthur, “Camelot” came to be a name for the presidency of John Fitzgerald Kennedy.

Camus, Albert

See existentialists.

(1913–60) French writer and philosopher, author of books like The Stranger and The Myth of Sisyphus.

Cannon

In Tony's memory of his mother's miscarriage, and his father's infidelity with Fran Felstein he is watching it on TV (5.7).

The private detective drama Cannon, starring William Conrad, ran from 1971 to 1976.

Canoe

When Livia asks Uncle Junior what cologne he is wearing (adding that he smells like a French prostitute), Junior answers that he is wearing Canoe.

Men's cologne, manufactured by Dana, available in the United States since the 1930s.

Canon, The

Meadow tells her mother she read “half the canon” while lying by the pool (4.2).

The “official” list of acceptable/sanctioned writers in the Western tradition.

Carnac the Magnificent

Phil says he could sense that Vito was in town, to which Tony responds, "You're fucking 'Carnac the Great,' now, too" (6.12)?

A role played by Johnny Carson on The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson, and later continued on Late Show with David Letterman. Carnac was a psychic with a large elaborate turban.

Carrey, Jim

Christopher speaks admiringly of the box-office take of Jim Carrey in The Grinch Who Stole Christmas (2000) (3.10).

(1992–) Popular 1990s comic and actor.

Casablanca

: Carmela quotes Casablanca to Father Phil (1.5).

1942 Michael Curtiz film starring Humphrey Bogart that has become one of the most popular movies of all time.

Casino

When asked what gangster films she and her friends like, Meadow mentions Casino (1.5). See also Pesci, Joe.

1995 Martin Scorsese film about gambling and the mob in Las Vegas.

Castaneda, Carlos

Carlos Castaneda, quoted by Dr Melfi, is mistaken for a boxer by Tony (2006). "Who the fuck listens to prize fighters?"  Tony replies.

(1931–1998) American anthropologist, author of books about his apprenticeship to a Yaqui Indian sorcerer.

Catskills

Ariel makes a joke when the gang has come to strong-arm him; Paulie asks "What is this, the Catskills? We got Shecky Greene here"  (1.3).

A range of the Appalachian Mountains and resort area in the state of New York, home to a variety of clubs where Jewish-American comedians honed their craft.

CCCY vs. Kentucky

When Bobby Bacala recalls, after his death, that Carmine was a great man who invented, point shaving, Uncle Junior names the game and year, “CCNY vs. Kentucky, 1951” (5.2).

A basketball game between City College of New York and the University of Kentucky was fixed by mob interference, the tip of the iceberg of a larger betting scandal stretching back several years and involving seven schools.

Chase, Chevy

While driving through Maryland, Paulie sees a road sign for the town Chevy Chase but mistakes it to be a reference to the actor. He asks whatever happened to him (6.15).

(1943- ) An American Emmy Award-winning comedian, writer, and actor who got his start on Saturday Night Live and found fame with his National Lampoon's Vacation film series.

Chef Boyardee

Tony tells Silvio that Italian self-esteem doesn"t come from “Columbus or The Godfather or fuckin" Chef-Boyardee” (4.3)

A popular line of low quality canned Italian food that introduced the cuisine to many Americans.

chemosabe

Brendan Filone describes Jackie Aprile as being "chemosabe" in his battle with cancer (1.1).

On TV's The Lone Ranger (1949–57), sidekick Tonto frequently used the word "kemosabe"  to refer to his partne, a word that apparently means "faithful friend"  in the Potowatomie language.

Chicken Soup for the Soul

Tony's Russian goomah Irina reads Chicken Soup for the Soul (2.12).

Jack Canfield's 1995 collection of feelgood stories that spawned an entire industry of similar books.

Children's Television Workshop

Dr. Freid's daughter is marrying one of their puppeteers (5.4).

The PBS-affiliated organization that produces the long-running children's television program Sesame Street.

Christmas Carol, A

In Tony's “test dream” it is playing on the TV in his kitchen (5.11).

The classic, often filmed, Charles Dickens novel about Ebeneezer Scrooge. The version in this episode appears to be the 1938 black and white film starring Reginald Owen as Scrooge.

Churchill, Sir Winston

Tony watches a History Channel documentary about him and asks Carmela if she saw “that TV movie about him” (4.5).

Albert Finney played Winston Churchill in The Gathering Storm (2002), an HBO movie about the run-up to World War II.

Churchill, Winston

Winston Churchill and Napoleon are both called to mind by Silvio (1012), seeking to explain Tony's depression to Christopher: "A lot of top guys have dark moods. That Winston Churchill, drank a quart of brandy before breakfast. Napoleon, he was a moody fuck too."

(1874–1965) British politician and writer, Prime Minister during World War II.

Cinderella Man

Carmela finds out that A. J. has been fired from Blockbuster after she tries to rent Cinderella Man; Tony calls it a "classic" (6.11).

A 2005 film directed by Ron Howard about the life of heavyweight boxing champion James J. Braddock.

Citizen Kane

The first movie the mob wives watch in their new film club (5.2).

1941 film by first time director Orson Welles (who also starred as Kane), often considered the greatest film ever made.

Clark, Mary Higgins

Carmela comments sarcastically that her books have been Meadow's only summer reading after her first year at Columbia (4.2).

(1929–). Prolific American author of bestselling suspense novels.

Cleaver, Eldridge

Moe refers to him as the model for his own renunciation of violence (4.7).

(1935–1998). Black militant leader of the 1960s, later a pacifist Christian, author of  the autobiography Soul on Ice.

CliffsNotes

Tony tells Melfi that he is familiar with Prince Matchabelli through Carmela's CliffsNotes version (3.6).

Academic study aids used by students since 1958.

CliffsNotes

A. J.'s English teacher Carmela tries to help A. J. understand Lord of the Flies using them. Later, Tom Fiske describes his latest paper as 10% effort and 90% CliffsNotes (5.6).

Academic study aids used by students since 1958.

Clooney, George

When a hospital orderly seeks to prevent Tony's verbal assault on his supposedly stroke-affected mother, he is called "George Clooney" and told to mind his own business (1013).

(1961–) American actor who rose to fame on the television program ER and went on to become a major film star.

Cobain, Kurt

The suicides of Kurt Cobain (1.9) and Ernest Hemingway (1.8) are evoked.

(1967–93). Lead singer of the Seattle Grunge band Nirvana, who committed suicide.

Cochran, Johnny

When one of the two boys who stole AJ biology teacher's Saturn demands to see a lawyer, Big Pussy shoves a gun barrel in his mouth and says "I"ve got fuckin" Johnny Cochran right here" (1.2).

Los Angeles criminal defense attorney, known for taking on racially-charged cases. Rose to national fame as O.J. Simpson's attorney.

Cody, Iron Eyes

Ralphie insists that the actor and Native American icon was not really an Indian (4.3).

(1907–1991). Actor and Native American activist, born Espera Oscar DeCorti.

Color Tile

Carmela and Furio make plans to meet at one of their stores (4.12).

American store chain selling flooring of all kinds.

Columbine High School Massacre

Christopher says that Vito's disturbed son Vito Jr. is probably sitting in his room "planning another Columbine" (6.16).

On April 20, 1999 two senior students, Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold, embarked on a massacre in their Littleton, Colorado high school, killing 12 students and one teacher in the fourth deadliest school incident in history.

“Comfortably Numb"

On his way down the stairs after waking up, Tony sings this song (6.18). In the following episode, Christopher plays the same song off The Departed soundtrack right before their car accident (6.19).

A song by the English progressive rock band Pink Floyd, which was released on the 1979 double album The Wall.

Cooper, Gary

Tony laments to Dr Melfi that there are no Gary Coopers anymore (1.1).

(1901–61) Stoic American actor, best known for his heroic roles in westerns and other films.

Copa, The

Fran Felstein claims to have first met JFK there (5.7). See also Kennedy, John Fitzgerald.

A swanky New York night club, the Copacabana has been a prominent setting in both television (I Love Lucy) and film (GoodFellas).

Cops

Christopher watches (and comments skeptically on) Fox's Cops.

Fox Television docudrama that uses actual police documentary video footage.

Corleone, Don

A. J.'s friend wants to know why his dad doesn"t have that “Don Coreleone money” (4.6). Feech calls Tony “Don Corleone” after he gives him a share of a big poker game (5.4).

The godfather of The Godather, played in the 1972 film by Marlon Brando and (as a young man) by Robert DeNiro in the 1974 film.

Corleone, Fredo

English teacher Tom Fiske compares A. J. to him (5.6).

The ineffectual, bumbling, traitorous Corleone son, played by John Cazale in both The Godfather and The Godfather II.

Course in Miracles, A

The receptionist at Eleuthera House is reading it when Christopher checks in (4.10).

A self-help manual published by The Foundation for Inner Peace.

Crane, Ichabod

Tony B. confessed to Christopher that “some very sorry people” once called him this (5.10).

The gangly, fearful school teacher in Washington Irving's “The Legend of Sleepy Hollow.”

Crater, Judge

Judge Crater is the punch-line of an Uncle Junior joke (2.11).

Judge Joseph F. Crater mysteriously disappeared from New York in 1930, becoming one of the most famous missing persons of the century.

“Creeps in this petty pace”

Johnny Sack refers to waiting for Carmine to die using this phrase (4.13).

From the famous “To be or not to be” soliloquy in Shakespeare's Hamlet.

Crime and Punishment

Dr Krakower recommends to Carmela that Tony read Dostoevsky's Crime and Punishment – in prison (3.7).

1867 novel by the Russian writer Dostoevsky (1821–81).

Crying Game, The

Christopher tells Jon Favreau and Amy Safir about a Mafioso's encounter with a transsexual, immediately reminding the d-girl of Crying Game (2.7).

1992 film by Neil Jordan about a man who becomes involved with the IRA and falls for a beautiful transsexual.

CSI

On the hunt for Vito, Carlo tells Tony his detective friend can track somebody "from the corn in his shit." Tony says he saw that on CSI (6.7).

An American crime drama television series that follows criminologists as they use physical evidence to solve grisly crimes. A ratings smash for CBS. 

Cuban Missile Crisis

See Thirteen Days.

1962 Cold War confrontation between the United and the USSR, precipitated by the Soviet Union's placement of missiles in Cuba.

Cuomo, Mario

Meadow uses the example of Mario Cuomo to refute her father's theory of discrimination against Italians as the socio-economic root of the Mafia: Tony: "There was a time, Mead, when the Italian people didn"t have a lot of options. Meadow: "You mean like Mario Cuomo?" (1.5).

(1932–). Former Governor of New York, often mentioned as a Presidential candidate.

Cuomo, Mario

A D"Angelis" relative visiting Hugh's 75th birthday party is considered very special because he once shook hands with him (5.8).

(1932–). Italian-American lawyer and politician, governor of New York from 1983–1994 and one-time Presidential candidate.

Curb Your Enthusiasm

Uncle Junior watches it on TV and, in his dementia, thinks Larry David is himself and Jeff Garlin is Tony (5.3).

HBO comedy series (2000–) created by and starring Seinfeld co-creator Larry David.

Dali, Salvatore

Paulie greets Salvatore Vito with “There he is, Salvatore, my dolly” (5.3).

(1904–1989). Eccentric, bizarre Spanish painter, the most notorious artist of the surrealist movement.

Darin, Bobby

Paulie asks Walden "what fuck kind of a name is [Walden] for an Italian?" Walden responds that he was named after Mr. Bobby Darin, "Walden Robert Cassotto" (6.21).

(1936-1973) An Italian-American singer, actor and musician born as Walden Robert Cassotto who found fame in the 1960s in a range of music genres, including pop, jazz, folk, and country.

David, Larry

See Curb Your Enthusiasm (5.3).

(1947–). Acerbic American comic, co-creator of the hit sitcom Seinfeld (1989–1998) for NBC and, later, Curb Your Enthusiasm (2000–) for HBO, in which he also starred.

Davis, Bette

Tony refers to his mother as a "fuckin" Bette Davis" (2006).

(1908–1989) Beautiful, talented, but notoriously difficult Hollywood film actress.

De Niro, Robert

Carmela and Father Phil discuss how Scorsese's The Last Temptation of Christ (1988) would have been very different with Robert De Niro in the lead instead of Willem Daffoe.

(1943–) Great American actor, best known for his work in a number of films with director Martin Scorsese and his portrayal of the young Vito Corleone in The Godfather II.

Death in Venice

A. J.'s next reading assignment after Billy Budd (4.12).

A 1930 novella by Thomas Mann about a writer who falls in love with a young boy.

Dementia 13

Noah Tannenbaum takes Meadow to see Dementia 13 (3.6).

The 1963 debut film of Godfather director Francis Ford Coppola.

Departed, The

Just before the car accident that claims his life, Christopher puts in The Departed soundtrack and calls it "fucking killer." Tony says he also owns it (6.19).

A 2006 American crime film directed by Martin Scorsese and winner of four Academy Awards about the Irish Mob.

Devil in the White City

Vito's lover Jim Witowski reads this bestselling novel in bed (6.10).

A 2003 non-fiction book by Erik Larson that tells the story of the World's Columbian Exposition held in Chicago in 1893 to commemorate Christopher Columbus's discovery of America.

Devil's Advocate, The

Christopher cites the character arcs of Richard Kimble (The Fugitive) and the Keannu Reeves character (Kevin Lomax) in The Devil's Advocate as he wonders what his own arc is (1.8).

1997 Taylor Hackford film starring Keannu Reeves.

DeWalt

Tony tells Tony B. that he can"t find this tool (5.4).

An American company that makes power tools primarily for home use.

Dickinson, Angie

Sex with Angie Dickinson (by Uncle Junior) is fantasized (1013).

(1931–) Beautiful but not very talented film and television actress.

Die Hard

See Rasputin.

1988 John McTiernan film in which Bruce Willis plays a resilient copy who thwarts a group of terrorists.

DiMaggio, Joe

Vito tells Tony that the guy from the planning commission overseeing the municipal swimming pool bids is willing to play ball, saying he's "fucking Joe DiMaggio" (6.5).

(1914-1999) An American baseball player for the New York Yankees, voted into the Baseball Hall of Fame in 1955. DiMaggio was a 3-time MVP winner and 13-time All-Star and the only player to be selected for the All-Star Game in every season he played.

Donnie Brasco

A member of the posse of gangster rapper Massive Genius calls out to Christopher, "Yo, Donnie Brasco" (1.10).

1997 Mike Newell film, starring Al Pacino and Johnny Depp, about an FBI agent who goes undercover with the mob.

Dr. Phil

Tony quotes him to Dr. Melfi on the ethics of dating your psychiatrist (5.1).

Dr. Phillip C. McGraw (1950–) parlayed his appearances on the Oprah Winfrey Show into a role as one of the major self-help guru of the early 21st Century.

Dr. Strangelove

J. T. Dolan has a poster of it hanging in his apartment, which Little Paulie will later smash over his head (5.7).

1963 black comedy film about nuclear war, directed by Stanley Kubrick.

Dreamgirls

Meadow's boyfriend Patrick Parisi invites A. J. to join their conversation about this film while at Bobby's funeral, sending A. J. on a rant about "living in a fucking dream" (6.21).

A 2006 Oscar-winning American musical film, following the lives of three young women who form an R&B singing trio in Detroit, Michigan called "The Dreamettes."

Dylan, Bob

A. J.'s girlfriend Rhiannon plays Dylan's song "It's Alright, Ma (I'm Only Bleeding)" right before their car catches fire. She remarks that although the song was written decades ago because "it's about, like, right now" (6.21).

An American singer-songwriter, musician, painter and poet and a mA. J.or figure in popular music for five decades. The song played was written in 1964 and has been described by one his biographers as a "grim masterpiece."

Earl Scheib

Tony wonders if Feech has already gone there since his release from prison (5.1).

A chain of American auto painting and collision stores.

Eloise and Abelard

In after-sex pillow talk, Mr. Wexler tells Carmela about them, after she finds their letters as bathroom reading material (5.6).

A 12th Century priest and a nun whose affair was circumvented by the church but continued in a famous, later published series of love letters.

Emmy Award

A pawn shop dealer won"t give J. T. Dolan more than $15 for his (5.7).

The Emmies are the annual awards, TV's most prestigious, given by the National Association of Television Arts and Sciences.

Enron

Tony counters Carmela's investment plans by insisting he doesn"t have connections of this type (4.1).

Energy-trading corporation, destroyed in the early 21st century by the largest ever American business scandal.

Enya

Alan Sapinsly claims he has no problem working with a mobster, having been involved in “that Neapolitan copyright thing” for her (4.13).

(1961–). Irish-born Celtic and New Age musician.

Erin Brokovich

Carmela's parents disagree on whether Erin Brokovich is a a good movie (3.6).

2000 Steven Soderberg film starring Julia Roberts.

Estrada, Erik

Christopher refers to him when Little Paulie voices his concern over cops on their cigarette run to North Carolina (5.5).

Puerto Rican-American actor who starred in the police series CHiPs (1977–83).

Evans, Dale

Sex with Dale Evans is fantasized (by Paulie Walnuts) (3.11).

(1912–2001) American actress and singer, longtime wife and partner of cowboy star and singer Roy Rogers.

Existentialists

AJ becomes deeply depressed after reading the existentialists at school (Sartre, Kierkegaard, Camus, Heidegger are evoked, and of course the German philosopher "Niche", and an English teacher, of course, is blamed – and the Internet) and learning that life is meaningless ("Death just shows the ultimate absurdity of life") (2.7).

Philosophical and literary movement, originating in Europe and coming into prominence after World War II.

Faces of Death

Janice and Ralphie watch this on video (4.2).

1978 “documentary” by John Allen Schwartz, a compilation of gruesome death scenes, many real.

Fargo

"Pine Barrens" (3.11), directed by Coen Brothers" veteran Steve Buscemi, evokes the winter landscapes of Fargo.

1996 film by the Coen Brothers.

Fatal Attraction

Tony's affair with Gloria Trillo (in Season Three) begins to imitate the plot of Fatal Attraction.

1987 film by Adrian Lyne starring Michael Douglas and Glenn Close about a married man's affair with a psychotic woman.

Father Knows Best

Asked by the soon-to-be-killed stripper Tracee whether he thinks she should have Ralph Cifaretto's baby and set up housekeeping, Tony sarcastically predicts a Father Knows Best future for them (3.6).

American television show (1954–1963) starring Robert Young.

Favreau, Jon

See Crying Game, The.

(1966–) American independent film producer (Swingers (1996)) and actor.

Favreau, Jon

Christopher recalls his encounter with him in “D-Girl” (5.7).

(1966–). American actor and director.

Fiedler, Leslie

In the debate over Billy Budd's gayness, Meadow cites his work, which leads Carmela to suggest that he might be gay as well (4.12).

(1917–2003). Iconoclastic American literary critic, best known for his against-the-grain readings of classic American literature, especially his suggestion that Huck and Jim, in Twain's great novel, have a “homoerotic” relationship.

Fields, W. C.

W. C. Fields fan Tony (1) uses his stolen DVD player to watch The Bank Dick (1.2), (2) quotes a Fields line when playing golf with the Wonderbread Wops (1.10), and (3) watches It's a Gift (1934) (3.9).The first evening after Tony moves back into the house he watches his It's a Gift on TV (5.12).

(1880–1946) American comic actor and writer, first in vaudeville, then in film.

Fluffernutter

Christopher asks his mother to make him one during a surprise visit (4.1).

A sandwich made with peanut butter and marshmallows.

Fogg, Phileas

Vito calls Meadow's boyfriend Finn Detrolio this when he accosts him coming off the hospital elevator (6.4).

The main fictional character in the 1873 Jules Verne novel Around the World in Eighty Days.

Francis, Connie

Tony brings his mother some CDs as a gift, including one by Connie Francis (1.1). Dr Melfi chides her ex "You devote your energies to the protection of the dignity of Connie Francis" (1.8).

(1938–) American singer and actress of Italian ancestry.

Frankenstein

See Golem.

Name usually used for monster created by Dr Frankenstein in Mary Shelley's 1818 novel and in all the films based upon it.

Fresh Prince of Bel Air

Tony calls Jackie Aprile, Jr. "The Fresh Prince of New Jersey" (3.6).

1990–1996 television show that made Will Smith a star.

Frida

Finn and Meadow watch it on DVD (5.4).

2002 Julie Taymor film about Mexican artist Frida Kahlo.

From Here to Eternity

The title of From Here to Eternity is echoed in the title of "From Where to Eternity" (2009).

1953 film by Fred Zinnemann, starring Frank Sinatra, based on a war novel by James Jones.

Fugitive, The

See Devil's Advocate, The.

1993 film by Andrew Davis, starring Harrison Ford.

Fugitive, The

Tony and the installer watch it on his new home theatre system (4.8).

1993 Harrison Ford movie, based on a popular 1963–1967 television program, about a doctor on the run after being falsely accused of murder.

Fuhrman, Mark

Christopher, unhappy with slow service in a mostly African American crowd in a restaurant, wonders aloud "What am I, Mark Fuhrman?" (1.10).

Los Angeles police detective, one of the prime investigators in the murder of Nicole Brown Simpson, revealed during the trial to be a racist.

Full Metal Jacket

The title of Full Metal Jacket is echoed in the title "Full Leather Jacket" (2008).

1987 anti-war film by Stanley Kubrick.

Garbo, Greta

Tony tells Svetlana she reminds him of her (4.10).

(1905–1990). Swedish-born film star of the 1920s and 1930s.

Garlin, Jeff

See Curb Your Enthusiasm (5.3).

American comic who plays Larry David's agent on Curb Your Enthusiasm.

Garofalo, Janeane

See Bernard, Sandra.

(1964–) American comic and actress.

Gaye, Marvin

While discussing Uncle Junior's fate after he shoots Tony, Vito remarks that he "Marvin Gaye-d" his own nephew (6.2).

(1939-1984) Gaye's father fatally shot him after the wildly successful singer moved back home. An argument allegedly started between his parents over misplaced business documents, and when Gaye attempted to intervene, his father killed him using a gun that Marvin Jr. had given him just four months before.

Giancana, Salvatore

The FBI agents questioning Carmela after Tony is shot say Uncle Junior keeps making pointed references to Sam Giancana. Carmela responds with, "You mean the Kennedy assassination? As related to this? My husband was three years old" (6.2).

(1908-1975) A mobster and boss of the Chicago Outfit from 1957–66. It is widely reputed that Giancana and other mobsters were recruited by the Central Intelligence Agency during the Kennedy administration to assassinate Cuban leader Fidel Castro. Giancana is also rumored to be responsible for JFK's assassination because the President stepped up persecution of the Chicago mob.

Gilligan's Island

Tony, suffering from food poisoning, mumbles the theme song to Gilligan's Island.

Silly American television series (1964–67) about a bunch of castaways.

Giuliani, Rudolf

Giuliani is considered (unfavorably) as a candidate for cloning (1.2) and mentioned in 1.4 as well.

(1944–) Mayor of New York City (1993–), known for his crackdown on crime, his conservative cultural politics, and his stewardship in the wake of the terrorist attack on the World Trade Center.

Gladiator

Throughout Season Three, Ralphie Cifaretto obsessively quotes lines from Gladiator.

Oscar-winning 2000 film by Ridley Scott, starring Russell Crowe, about a former Roman general who seeks revenge against the emperor who betrayed him and killed his family.

Glass Menagerie, The

See Rebel without a Cause.

1944 play by Tennessee Williams.

Gleason, Jackie

Little Tony quotes Reginald van Gleason the Third to Tony“Boy are you fat” (5.2). Tony B. does an imitation of one of his characters again in 5.8.

(1916–1987). Rotund American film and television comic and variety show host, best known for The Honeymooners and The Jackie Gleason Show.

Godfather II, The

Drawing comparisons to it, A. J.'s friend asks if he's worried about his house being attacked. Devin Pillsbury wants to know if the Sopranos also have a place in Tahoe (4.6).

Francis Ford Coppola's 1974 sequel to The Godfather, starring Al Pacino and Robert DeNiro.

Godfather, The

The Godfather is referred to in numerous episodes. Paulie, for example, has a Godfather-themed car horn (1.11). See David Pattie's essay in this volume.

Francis Ford Coppola's 1972 gangster film, starring Marlon Brando and Al Pacino.

Godfather, The

A. J.'s friend suggests he will never be drafted because his father will make an unrefuseable offer as in The Godfather.

Francis Ford Coppola's 1972 classic gangster film starring Marlon Brando.

Godfather, The II

Referred to in numerous episode. See David Pattie's essay in this volume.

Francis Ford Coppola's 1974 sequel to The Godfather, starring Robert De Niro and Al Pacino.

Godfather, The III

Carmela tells Father Phil that Tony is no fan of Godfather III: "Three was like, what happened?" (1.1). See also Pacino, Al and "Just when I thought I was out, they keep pulling me back in."

Francis Ford Coppola's long-delayed and largely unsuccessful 1990 sequel to The Godfather, starring Al Pacino and Andy Garcia.

Golem

Tony is compared to the Golem and then to Frankenstein by an Hasidic Jew who has sought his help and now wants nothing to do with him (1.3). Tony refers to the bearded Shlomo Teittleman as "ZZ Top."

In Hebrew legend, an artificial man/monster made out of clay by a rabbi to be his servant.

GoodFellas

Father Phil asks Carmela what Tony thinks of GoodFellas (1.1). The guests at a dinner party at the Cusamano house discuss it (1.10). When asked what kind of films he wants to write, Christopher replies "GoodFellas and shit" (2005).

1990 Martin Scorsese gangster film.

Google

Adriana tells Tony that she used it to find information on Irritable Bowel Syndrome (5.5).

Internet search engine; its tremendous turn-of-the-century success made its name a synonym for searching the Web.

Goya, Francisco

Tony compares Gloria Trillo's beauty to a painting by "Goyim" (3.12).

(1746–1828). Great Spanish painter, known for his portraits of royalty.

GQ

Tony refers to Mikey Palmice as "Mr. GQ" (1.4).

GQ is a magazine offering "fashion, sports, women, journalism, fitness and more for the modern man" (from the magazine's website).

Greene, Shecky

See Catskills.

(1926–). Jewish stand-up comic and actor.

Grumpy Old Men

Tony offers to loan his DVD player to Uncle Junior so he can watch Grumpy Old Men (1.2).

1993 film starring Jack Lemmon and Walter Matthau, that gave rise to a sequel.

Grunge

Tony refers to Grunge in a discussion of Janice's years in Seattle (2001).

"A soulful hard-rock variant that was instrumental to alternative music's early-"90s move overground" (from alt.culture.com).

Gunga Din

Livia complains that the woman in the room next door in the Green Grove, "a regular Gunga Din," is always running water (1.6).

Gunga Din was a character, an Indian boy serving as a water carrier for the British army, in poem by Rudyard Kipling.

Harpie

Janice claims she didn"t want to seem like one by complaining about Bobby Bacala's continued obsession with his dead wife (4.11).

According to the Internet Encyclopedia Mythica, “Harpies were described as beautiful, winged maidens. Later they became winged monsters with the face of an ugly old woman and equipped with crooked, sharp talons. They were represented carrying off persons to the underworld and inflicting punishment or tormenting them. Those persons were never seen again.”

Harpo's Song”

The inspiration for Janice's son's name, Tony brings it up at a Sunday dinner in order to bate her into anger (5.10).

A 1973 song by Phoebe Snow.

Harry Potter books

Raymond Curto comments, enviously, that these are a “gold mine” (4.2).

The phenomenally successful Harry Potter books (seven in all, beginning in 1997), written by J. K. Rowling, have made their author the richest woman in the UK.

Hasidism/Hasidic.

Tony and his crew come to the aid of Shlomo Teittleman, an Hasidic jew, in securing a divorce for his daughter (1.3).

A Jewish religious movement founded in the 18th Century in Poland.

Hawthorne, Nathaniel

On the wall at Bowdoin College on a college visit with Meadow, Tony reads "No man can wear one face to himself and another to the multitude without finally getting bewildered as to which may be true" (1.5).

From Chapter 20 of The Scarlet Letter (1850) by American fiction writer Nathaniel Hawthorne (1804–1864), a Bowdoin graduate.

Heidegger, Martin

See existentialists.

(1889–1976). German existential philosopher, author of such books as Being and Time (1927).

Helgenberger, Marg

Bobby Bacala responds to Janice's sleuthing—she deduces that he's been to the cemetery by the dirt on his shoes—by saying “What are you Marg Higinbrenner now” (4.11).

(1958- ). American actress best known for her role as a Las Vegas police forensic expert in the hit television drama C.S.I.:Crime Scene Investigation (2000–).

Hemingway, Ernest

See Cobain, Kurt.

(1899–1961). American novelist, who took his own life with a shotgun.

High Noon

In Tony's “test dream” it is playing on the TV at Vesuvio's (5.11).

Classic 1952 Fred Zinnemann Western starring Gary Cooper as a sheriff who must face a gang of revengeful outlaws on his own.

Hitler, Adolf

Ruben insists, in a remark that angers Hesh, that Columbus “was no better than Hitler” (4.3).

(1889–1945). Founder of the National Socialist Party (the Nazis) and Führer and chancellor of Germany (1933–1945), whose dreams of a Third Reich provoked World War II.

Hockney, David

Irina has a painting (of a swimming pool) that reminds her of David Hockey (1.3).

(1937–). Realistic British-American painter known for his pop art depictions of subjects like swimming pools and lawns.

Hogan's Heroes

When Tony's crew heists a collection of German World War II memorabilia, Big Pussy, in uniform, does an imitation of Colonel Klink from Hogan's Heroes (2.11).

Television sit-com (1965–71) set in a World War II POW camp.

Honeymooners, The

Tony, A. J., and Artie watch it on TV (5.4).

Classic 1950s television sitcom starring Jackie Gleason and Art Carney.

Hootie and the Blowfish

Uncle Junior brings Carter a Hootie and the Blowfish CD in an attempt to cheer him up (6.15).

An American rock band that enjoyed widespread popularity in the second half of the 1990s with a debut album that is one of the best selling albums of all time.

Horse Whisperer, The

Ralphie tells Tony, who is talking to Pie-Oh-My, to stop this “horse-whispering shit” (4.8).

The Horse Whisperer was a 1998 film directed by (and starring) Robert Redford, based on the best-selling book by Nicholas Evans.

How the Grinch Stole Christmas

See Carrey, Jim.

2000 film by Ron Howard starring Jim Carrey.

How to Marry a Millionaire

Carmela watches it on TV while waiting for Tony to come home (4.12).

1953 film directed by Jean Negulesco and starring Betty Grable, Lauren Bacall, and Marilyn Monroe.

Hunchback of Notre Dame

See Quasimodo (4.1).

Novel by Victor Hugo (1802–1885), published in 1831.

Hunter, Catfish

Tony tries to convince Meadow that hating Coach Hauser should not prevent success by citing the difficult relationship of Catfish Hunter and Billy Martin.

Major league baseball pitcher with the Oakland Athletics and New York Yankees.

Hurston, Zora Neale

At Livia's first visit to Green Grove, we learn that Zora Neale Hurston's novels will be discussed in an upcoming presentation (1.1).

(1903–1960) African-American writer, one of the major figures of the Harlem Renaissance.

Husserl, Edmund

See existentialists.

(1859–1938) Austrian-born German phenomenological philosopher.

“I don"t want my husband coming out of there with just a cock in his hand”

In Tony's “test dream” Finn's mother/Annette Bening uses these words when her husband and Tony go to the restroom (5.11).

This line recalls a similar one uttered in The Godfather (1972) by Sonny Corleone (James Caan) prior to the fateful meeting between Michael (Al Pacino) and Sollozzo and Captain McCluskey in an Italian restaurant.

I Dream of Jeannie

I Dream of Jeannie is echoed in the title "I Dream of Jeannie Cusamano" (1.13).

American television series (1965–70) about a genie in service to an astronaut.

“I Got you Babe”

Bobby Bacala and Janice sing it after returning home after Uncle Junior's mistrial is declared (4.13).

A 1965 hit song by Sonny and Cher.

“I Shot the Sheriff”

Tony listens to it in the kitchen (4.11).

A 1974 hit song by Eric Clapton, written by Bob Marley.

Impossible Dream, The”

See Man of La Mancha (4.12).

The most famous song from the musical Man of La Mancha, sung by Don Quixote.

It's a Wonderful Life

Tony watches (unhappily) It's a Wonderful Life on television (3.10).

1946 Frank Capra work, starring Jimmie Stewart, that has become a kind of holiday cult film.

Jamaican bobsled team

See Boyz II Men.

Unlikely participants in the 1988 Winter Olympics in Calgary.

Jamba Juice

The hugely popular franchise sends a Century 21 Real Estate agent to try to persuade Tony to sell a building he owns, the one he is renting to Caputo's Poultry (6.8).

A trendy chain of smoothie restaurants with over 700 locations operating in 30 states.

James, Henry

Meadow recommends her parents read him to learn more about “the restorative nature of travel” (4.2). See also Robbins, Anthony.

(1843–1916). Incomparable American-born, expatriate (in the UK) fiction writer, many of whose novels are about Americans abroad.

Jehovah's Witnesses

Tony claims that they are more interesting than Jack Massarone (4.2).

An apocalyptic Christian denomination that uses the Hebrew name for the divine being and actively proselytizes worldwide.

Jewel

Christopher "masterminding" robbery of the box office of a benefit concert by Jewel at Rutgers University for Amnesty International (3.3).

(1974–) Popular contemporary American folk/pop singer and poet.

Johnny Mnemonic

Christopher describes Uncle Pat's ability to remember where the Johnson brothers are buried being like him (5.10).

The titular character in a 1995 science fiction film, directed by Robert Longo, based on a short story by cyberpunk founder William Gibson.

Judas

After comparing Big Pussy to him, Rosie Aprile then adds that at least he didn"t go into any “Apostle Protection Program” (5.2).

The infamous apostle who betrayed Jesus after the Last Supper, making his whereabouts known to the Roman authorities.

Jughead, Monsignor

Tony refers to Father Phil as Monsignor Jughead (1.5).

Jughead is a character in Archie comic books.

“Just when I thought I was out, they keep pulling me back in.”

Silvio Dante quotes this line on several occasions, including 1.2 and 2001.

Al Pacino lines (as Michael Corleone) in Godfather III.

Kennedy, Jackie

Tony claims that she “thought the marriage was over” (5.7) because of Fran Felstein's affair with her husband.

(1929–1994). Jacqueline Lee Bouvier Kennedy Onassis was the wife of John Fitzgerald Kennedy, First Lady of the United States, and later the wife and widow of Greek shipping tycoon Aristotle Onassis.

Kennedy, Jackie

 At Christopher's funeral, Tony calls his wife Kelli "Jackie Kennedy" because of her all-black ensemble and oversized sunglasses (6.18).

(1929-1994) The wife of the 35th president of the United States, John F. Kennedy, who served as First Lady during his presidency from 1961 until his assassination in 1963. Known for her signature style and elegance.

Kennedy, John Fitzgerald

Being tested for mental competence, Uncle Junior incorrectly (but purposefully) identifies him as the POTUS preceding Bush (4.9). Fran Felstein claims to have  had an affair with him (5.7).

(1917–1963). 35th President of the United States (1961–1963), he had numerous affairs during his political career. He was assassinated in Dallas, Texas in November 1963.

Kerouac, Jack

Janice Soprano plans to make a self-help video to be called Lady Kerouac, or Packing for the Highway to a Woman's Self-Esteem (2002).

(1922–69) American novelist and poet, one of the founders of the Beat Movement. His most famous novel was On the Road.

Key Largo

While snorting coke in the opening montage of Season Two, Christopher watches Key Largo on TV (2001).

1948 John Huston gangster film starring Edward G. Robinson and Humphrey Bogart.

Kierkegaard, Sören

See existentialists. Big Pussy's son tells AJ: "You should start at the beginning. Take a look at Kierkegaard" (2.7).

(1813–55) Danish philosopher and theologian, the father of existentialism.

Kiley, Richard

See Man of La Mancha (4.12).

(1922–1999). Stage and screen performer, whose performance in Man of La Mancha was one of his signature roles.

King of New York, The

Tony greets Johnny Sack in their first meeting after his becoming boss with this appelation (5.12).

1990 gangster film, directed by Abel Ferrara, and starring Christopher Walken.

Kingsley, Ben

 Christopher and Little Carmine travel to Los Angeles to meet with a reluctant Sir Ben Kingsley, whom they want to play the boss in their film project (6.7).

(1943- ) An English actor who's been awarded an Oscar, BAFTA, Golden Globe and Screen Actors Guild award.

Kingsolver, Barbara

Carmela tells Meadow in her dorm room that she is reading the new Barbara Kingsolver" (3.7).

(1955–) Contemporary American novelist.

Knucklehead Smith

When Janice asks about Uncle Junior's deteriorating condition, Tony refers to him as "Knucklehead Smith," calling him "fucking paranoid" (6.1).

A dummy on the variety program Circus Time, shown in the United States by ABC from 1956-57. The host was ventriloquist Paul Winchell, who was "assisted" by his dummies Jerry Mahoney and Knucklehead Smith.

Kreskin, The Amazing

Tony angrily insists he is not him (4.1).

(1935–). Psychic, mind reader, and entertainer, who made frequent appearances on American television in the 1960s and 1970s.

Kruggerands

Meadow recalls finding Kruggerands during an Easter egg hunt at the Soprano house (1.5).

Gold coins issued by the nation of South Africa.

Kundun

When Christopher spots Scorsese at a movie theatre, he calls after him "Kundun, I liked it" (1.2).

1997 film, a box-office disaster, by Martin Scorsese about the Dalai Llama.

Kung Fu

""Tony watches an episode of this show entitled "The Praying Mantis Kills" while in the hospital, telling Paulie he used to watch it all the time when he was a little kid (6.4).

An American television show that follows the adventures of a Shaolin monk, Kwai Chang Caine, played by David Carradine who travels through the American Old West.

L Word, The

Tony references this show as the "thing with Jennifer Beals" while talking about Vito's homosexuality with Dr. Melfi, using it as an example of how rampant he thinks it's become in pop culture (6.6).

A television drama series starring actress Jennifer Beals portraying the lives of a group of lesbian, bisexual and transgender people in West Hollywood.

La Dolce Vita

Uncle Junior watches (but falls asleep during) a TV screening of it. He is not impressed by the fake Christ hanging from a helicopter (5.8).

Watershed (1960) Italian film, directed by Federico Fellini and starring Marcello Mastroianni.

Lacan, Jacques

Melfi's son, Jason La Penna, takes a class on Lacan at Bard College (2.11).

(1901–81) The French Freud, Parisian structuralist psychoanalyst.

Lancelot

Playing poker, Pussy laments that "I"ve eaten more queens than Lancelot!" (1.6).

Arthurian knight who had an affair with Guinevere.

LaRosa, Julius

Nucci and her “friends” remember him on a shopping trip (4.12).

(1930–). Handsome Italian-American singer and performer, best known for his appearance on television's Arthur Godfrey Show.

Last Temptation of Christ, The

Carmela and Father Phil discuss Scorsese's The Last Temptation of Christ (1988) (1.5). See also De Niro, Robert.

Controversial 1988 film adaptation by Martin Scorsese of a Kazantzakis novel.

Lauren, Ralph

Janice cites Ralphie's wearing of his clothes as proof he has “a sense of style” Tony lacks (4.2)

(1939–). American fashion designer of high-end ready-to-wear clothing.

Law and Order

See Wolf, Dick (5.7).

A long-running (1990–) crime drama on American television set in New York, the flagship series of a variety of spinoffs.

Lawford, Peter

Fran Felstein mentions him being present when she first met JFK (5.7). See also Kennedy, John Fitzgerald, Rat Pack.

(1923–1984). American actor, a fellow traveler of The Rat Pack.

Lechter, Hannibal

Tony seeks to distinguish himself from "Hannibal Lecture" (1.1).

Fictional serial killer, psychoanalyst, and cannibal, played by Anthony Hopkins in Silence of the Lambs (1991 – for which he won an Oscar) and Hannibal (2001).

“Legend of Sleepy Hollow”

Headed for upstate New York, Tony B. tells Christopher that the Disney cartoon version of this story scared “the piss out of me” when he was achild (5.10). See also Crane, Icahbod.

Washington Irving's famous short story about a school teacher's encounter with frightening “headless horseman.”

Lemon, Jack

When Christopher returns from rehab, Tony greets him by asking “Hey Jack Lemon, where's Lee Remick” (4.13).

(1925–2001). Great American stage and screen actor, who starred with Remick in Blake Edwards" Days of Wine and Roses (1962)

Leopold and Loeb

Tony cites Leopold and Loeb as evidence that not all bad kids come from mob families (1.7).

Chicago teenagers who committed a nationally famous vicious murder in the 1920s.

Lewis, Jerry

Tony asks Mikey Palmice why there is no Jerry Lewis telethon for "Fuckface-itis" (1.2).

(1926–) American film comedian, known for his annual telethons on behalf of Muscular Dystrophy.

LexisNexis

Uncle Junior laments how much he is paying his lawyer for “fuckin" lexus fees” (4.1).

A search service providing case-law information for the legal professional.

Little Miss Sunshine

Tony watches a scene from this movie while visiting Silvio in the hospital (6.21).

A 2006 American film about a family's road trip to their young daughter's beauty pageant, with a large portion focusing on events related to the family car.

Little Rascals, The

Christopher watches an episode (with a guerrilla) while injecting himself with heroin (4.10).

“Our Gang, also known as The Little Rascals or Hal Roach's Rascals, was a longlived series of comedy short films about a troupe of poor neighborhood children and the adventures they had together” (from Wikipedia.com)

Livia

The name of Tony's mother echoes (alludes to?) an evil, scheming character in I, Claudius.

I, Claudius was a 1976 BBC mini-series basic on the novel by Robert Graves.

Lohan, Lindsay

 Christopher tells Tony that not much came out of his trip to Los Angeles except a Lindsay Lohan sighting, who he calls a "total piece of ass" (6.7).

(1986- ) An American actress, model and singer whose career has mostly degenerated into tabloid fodder.

Lojack

When asked to find AJ's biology teacher's Saturn, Tony replies that he recently changed him name from "Lojack to Soprano" (1.2).

A corporation that markets stolen vehicle recovery technology.

Lord of the Flies

A. J. buys a paper on it on the Internet (5.6).

1954 novel by the British Nobel Prize winner William Golding (1911–1983) about school boys stranded on a desert island.

Lord of the Rings, The

Ralphie's son is seriously injured by an arrow as he and another boy act out scenes from it (4.9).

Peter Jackson's trilogy of films (The Fellowship of the Ring [2001], The Two Towers [2002], The Return of the King [2003]), based on J. R. R. Tolkien's classic fantasy novels, were a cultural sensation in the early twenty-first century.

Lord's Prayer, The

Meadow reads a version of this traditional Christian prayer to her comatose father. The poem she reads is written by the French poet and screenwriter Jacques Prévert. We hear her recite the following lines"Our Father who art in heaven / Stay there / And we'll stay here on earth / Which is sometimes so pretty" (6.2).

Prévert wrote the film Les Enfants du paradis (The Children of Paradise, 1945), which often appears on critics' lists of the greatest films of all time. His poems are often about life in Paris and life after the Second World War.

Lou Gehrig's Disease

At the funeral for Raymond Curto, Christopher asks if anyone ever notices how coincidental it is that Lou Gehrig died of Lou Gehrig's disease (6.1).

An American baseball player in the 1920s and 1930s, chiefly remembered for his prowess as a hitter. He left the game at 36, when he was stricken with a fatal disease later named after him.

Machiavelli. Nicolo

Tony recalls (after reading Sun Tzu) his encounter (via Carmela's Cliff Notes version) with "Prince Matchabelli" (3.6).

(1469–1527) Italian writer, statesman, and political theorist, author of The Prince.

Madame Bovary

Mr. Wexler recommends that Carmela read it (5.5, 5.6).

Classic 1857 novel by Gustave Flaubert (1821–1880) about a woman whose infatuation with Romance novels leads her to a tragic end.

Magnum, P.I.

On the television set as Christopher kills Barry Haydu, the cop who supposedly killed his father (4.1).

Popular American television show (1980–88) about an Hawaii-based private investigator played by Tom Selleck.

Malden, Karl

Paulie mentions him because his nose hair shows up very prominently in his new DVD version of On the Waterfront (4.10).

(1912–). American character actor, known for his strikingly unattractive face. In On the Waterfront he plays a priest who ministers to longshoremen.

Maltin, Leonard

At the mob wife movie club, Carmela reads his description of Citzen Kane (5.2)

(1950–). American movie critic and commentator, known for his video and DVD movie guides.

Man of La Mancha

At dinner after The Producers Paulie and Nucci recall it, and Paulie claims Richard Kiley sang “Impossible Dream” directly to his mother (4.12).

1960s musical version of the story of Don Quixote by Dale Wasserman, Mitch Leigh, and Joe Darion.

Marciano, Rocky

Vito lives under the pretense that he's a writer working on a book during his hideout and originally tells his lover-to-be it's about Marciano (6.8).

(1923-1969) The heavyweight champion of the world from September 23, 1952, to April 27, 1956, when he retired as the only heavyweight champion in boxing history to retire having won every fight in his professional career.

Martin, Billy

See Hunter, Catfish.

(1928–89) Baseball player, mostly with the Yankees, and later New York's controversial manager.

Martin, Dean

Dean Martin's picture is on the wall in the pork store during Christopher's whack of Emil Kolar (1.1).

(1917–95) Italian-American singer and actor.

Marx, Harpo

The FBI describes Tony (who they have been trying to catch on tape incriminating himself) as "quiet as Harpo Marx" (3.1).

(1888–1964) Curly-haired, completely speechless member of the Marx Brothers comedy team.

Masada

Masada is evoked by Ariel, an Hasidic Jew whose bris is about to be finished by Tony's gang in order to insure his cooperation (1.3).

Battle in which 900 Jews held off 15,000 Roman soldiers for almost two years until surrender in 73 AD.

Mathers, Jerry

Julianna tells Christopher he might want to rethink the title of his film, "Cleaver," because of the Jerry Mathers connection.

(1948- ) An American television, film, and stage actor best known for his role in the sitcom Leave It to Beaver (1957 –1963), in which he plays Theodore "Beaver" Cleaver.

Matrix, The

AJ gives his mother a used copy of The Matrix on DVD for a birthday present (3.9).

Blockbuster 1999 science fiction film by the Wachowski brothers.

McGuire Sisters, The

The FBI agents questioning Carmela after Tony is shot say that Uncle Junior has been frequently referencing the McGuire Sisters and the Kennedy assassination (6.2).

A singing trio popular during the 1950s. One of the sisters, Phyllis, was rumored to have had a long-lasting affair with Chicago mob boss Salvatore "Momo" Giancana. She was also romantically linked at the same time to President Kennedy.

McLuhan, Marshall

A federal marshal named "McLuhan" puts in an appearance (2.11).

(1911–80) Canadian-born media theorist, author of The Medium is the Message, The Guttenberg Galaxy, and other books.

Meatpacking District,

Christopher's film Cleaver has its premiere in the trendy Meatpacking District of New York City, to which Tony eclaims, "But I'm a happily married man" (6.14)!

A neighborhood in the New York City borough of Manhattan that runs roughly from West 14th Street south to Gansevoort Street and from the Hudson River east to Hudson Street and has seen a spike in trendiness and popularity during the first decade of the new millennium.

Meet the Press

Aunt Concheta dies of a heart attack while watching it (5.7).

Long-running (1947–) NBC Sunday morning news program, featuring interviews with major political figures.

Memoirs of a Geisha

Carmela is seen reading on several occasions Arthur L. Golden's Memoirs of a Geisha.

1999 novel about pre-WWII Japan by Arthur L. Golden.

Men in Black

Tony mentions Men in Black as the perfect film to accompany his new DVD and some Orville Redenbacher.

1997 Barry Sonnenfield film starring Tommy Lee Jones and Will Smith.

Menendez Brothers

Worrying about the implications of Tony seeing a psychiatrist, Junior tells Mikey Palmice: "Do you remember those two fuckin" Escobedo Brothers, or whoever the fuck, in California? They whacked their parents? The shrink was in the fuckin" witness chair" (1.7).

Lyle and Erik Menendez mudered their parents and were convicted of first-degree murder in 1996.

Metalocalypse

A. J. watches this cartoon in the common room at the mental health hospital (6.20).

An American animated television series, parodying other "band" and supernatural programs by following the exploits of the part-American/part-Scandinavian death metal band Dethklok.

Meucci, Antonio

Tony corrects AJ's assumption that Alexander Graham Bell invited the telephone. "You see? Antonio Meucci invented the telephone and he got robbed! Everybody knows that" (1.8).

(1808–89) Italian inventor sometimes credited with invented the basic technology of the telephone.

Mickey Blue Eyes

Bad first weekend numbers for Mickey Blue Eyes result in a d-girl's sudden disinterest in the genre (2.7).

1999 second-rate mob comedy starring Hugh Grant.

Millers Crossing

Evoked in "Pine Barrens" (3.11), directed by Coen Brothers" veteran Steve Buscemi.

1990 gangster film by the Coen Brothers; in its most famous scene, a man is led into the woods at Miller's Crossing in order to be whacked.

Mister Rogers’ Neighborhood

Echoed in the title "Mr. Ruggerio's Neighborhood" (3.1).

PBS children's program that ran from 1966 to 2001.

Moe Green Special

Big Pussy and Paulie debate the mise-en-scène of the "Moe Green special" in "One".

In The Godfather, Moe Green is murdered while getting a massage by a bullet in the eye.

Mohel

 See bris.

In Judaism, an individual who performs the right of circumcision at a bris.

Monopoly

 Tony, Carmela, Bobby and Janice play this popular board game during Tony's birthday weekend, leading up to a violent fight between the two men (6.13).

A board game published by Parker Brothers and amed after the economic concept of monopoly, the domination of a market by a single entity. The most commercially-successful board game in United States history, with 485 million players worldwide.

Monroe, Marilyn

Fran Felstein mentions being aware that JKF had other women, including her (5.7). Later Fran does a disturbing version of her infamous “Happy Birthday” serenade of JKF. See also Kennedy, John Fitzgerald.

(1926–1962). American actress, the greatest sex symbol of the 1950s.

Montalbán, Ricardo

Carmela tells Rosalie that Tony used the only six words he knew in Spanish while they were in Miami like he was "Ricardo Montalbán or something" (6.11).

(1920-2009) A Mexican-born American radio, television, theatre and film actor with a career spanning seven decades (motion pictures from 1943 to 2006) and multiple notable roles.

Morning Edition

FBI Agent Sanseverino is listening to it on NPR (5.12).

National Public Radio's morning news show, hosted, at the time, by Bob Edwards.

Morrison, Jim

See "People are Strange".

(1943–71) Charismatic lead singer of The Doors. He died of a drug overdose in Paris.

Mr. Clean

Tony greets laundry delivery man Tony B.'s entrance into the Bada Bing with “There he is, Mr. Clean” (5.3).

Eponymous 1950s and 60s American advertising icon—a bald, muscular man in a t-shirt—the spokesperson for a cleaning liquid.

Mummy, The

Richie Aprile and Junior discuss a pirated version of The Mummy (2008).

1999 Stephen Sommers film.

Murder One

Adriana watches it on TV and gets the idea that she won"t have to testify against Christopher if she marries him (4.7).

High concept, short-lived television drama (1995–1997) that devoted an entire season to a single murder trial.

Napoleon

See Churchill, Winston.

(1769–1821) French military later and emperor.

Nash Bridges

J . T. Dolan talks about how his heroin addiction caused him to miss a deadline for it (5.7).

1996–2001 television detective show, set in San Francisco and starring Don Johnson and Cheech Marin.

Navarro, Ramon

Right before he's stabbed to death by Silvio and Carlo, Fat Dom Gamiello jokes that the "old homo actor Ramon Navarro had an ivory dildo stuck up his ass when they found him," comparing him to Vito (6.11).

(1899-1968) A Mexican actor who achieved fame as a "Latin lover" in silent films. He was murdered by two men he'd hired from an agency for sex.

New Jersey Nets

Carmela criticizes Tony for taking A. J. to one of their games on a school night (5.4).

National Basketball Association professional basketball team, playing at Continental Airlines Arena in The Meadowlands.

New York Jets

Adriana's friend mentions selling paperweights as Christmas gifts to the New York Jets front office (4.2).

NFL professional football team.

New York Mets

Tony asks Svetlana (prior to sleeping with the one-legged woman) “How about those Mets?” (4.10).

National League major league baseball team.

News Hour, The

At Uncle Pat's farm, Tony watches it (5.10).

60 minute PBS evening news program hosted by Jim Lehrer.

Nietzsche, Friedrich

See existentialists.

(1844–1900) Controversial German classical philologist and philosopher.

Nolte, Nick

See Prince of Tides (5.1).

(1941–). American movie actor, known for his tough guy persona.

Nostradamus

See Quasimodo (4.1).

“Nostradamus (1503–1566), born Michel de Nostredame, is one of the world's most famous authors of prophecies. He is most famous for his book Les Propheties, which consists of rhymed quatrains . . . grouped into sets of 1., called Centuries” (from Wikipedia.com).

Nuremburg Trials

 The paramedic Tony accuses of rifling through his wallet says he was "just doing his job." Tony tells him they heard a lot of that at Nuremburg (6.4).

German officials involved in the Holocaust and accused of other war crimes were brought before an international tribunal in the Nuremberg Trials between 1945 and 1946.

O’Keefe, Georgia

As Meadow watches a rerun of The Howling III on TV while making out with a Puerto Rican boyfriend, a horrid metamorphosis takes place on screen reminding her, as she announces, of "Georgia O"Keefe!" (1.13).

(1887–1984) American painter, best known for her desert images of flowers and skulls.

O’Neil, Shaquille

When Tony recalls that Silvio has a bust of Frank Sinatra done by Fabian Petrullo, Christopher admits that he thought it was a likeness of Shaquille O"Neal.

Huge, powerful professional basketball player, currently with the Los Angeles Lakers.

On the Waterfront

Paulie tells Silvio about watching it on a new DVD (4.10).

1954 film by Elia Kazan set on the New York docks, starring Marlon Brando as a has-been boxer.

“Once, Twice, Three Times a Lady”

In Tony's “test dream” Vin Makasian, playing Finn's father, unaccountably sings it (5.11).

A hit song by The Commodores.

One True Thing

Father Phil brings One True Thing to the Soprano house, hoping to watch it on Tony's DVD player with Carmela (1.13).

1998 film by Carl Franklin.

Opus Dei

Little Carmine is upset at his father's funeral arrangements and blames this “New Jersey housewife fundamentalist shit” on Ginny Sack, who is in Opus Dei (5.2).

A conservative Catholic organization.

Ouija Board

A. J. uses one to pretend to contact the dead (4.11).

“Ouija (pronounced wee-juh or wee-jee) refers to the belief that one can receive messages during a séance by the use of a Ouija board (also called a talking board or spirit board) and planchette. The fingers of the participants are placed on the planchette which then moves about a board covered with numbers, letters and symbols so as to spell out messages” (from Wikipedia.com).

“Our true enemy has yet to reveal himself"

Silvio Dante quotes this line on several occasions, including in 2.13.

Al Pacino line (as Michael Corleone) in Godfather III.

Ozzie and Harriet

“Oh, look at this" – Tony comments sarcastically when he first discovers his sister's co-habitation with Richie Aprile – “Ozzie and fuckin" Harriet here. That's beautiful" (2005).

The Adventures of Ozzie & Harriet (1952–1966) was a corny, homey 1950s sit-com about the real-life Nelson family.

Pacino, Al

Silvio imitates (repeatedly) Al Pacino in The Godfather and Godfather III.

American actor, who starred in several gangster films, most famously as Michael Corleone in all three Godfather films.

Parcells, Bill

When Tony tells Uncle Junior he wants him to be the new boss, he flatters his strength and tells him he's going to call Parcells to get him a try-out (1.4).

(1941–) At the time, coach of the New York Jet pro football team. Twice coached the New York Giants to Super Bowl titles (1987,91).

Passages

Sent to convince Irina that she should forget about her sugar daddy, Silvio cites Gail Sheehy's Passages to buttress his argument (2.12).

1984 book by Gail Sheehy.

Paths of Glory

Uncle Junior watches this film while home alone. With the movie playing in the background, Junior shoots Tony, believing him to be "Little Pussy" Malanga (6.1).

This 1957 war film was directed by Stanley Kubrick, based on the novel of the same name by Humphrey Cobb. The film is based loosely on the true story of four French soldiers under General Géraud Réveilhac, executed for mutiny during World War I.

Penn and Teller

Adriana and Christopher, playing Truth or Dare, have a fight after she confesses (at his instigation) to having oral sex with Penn (3.7).

American comical magic duo.

“People are Strange”

Dr Melfi's sometime boyfriend Randall says (after being beaten up by Detective Makazian) that he can"t help thinking about The Doors" song “People are Strange" (1.4). “Dead at 27 in a Paris bathtub," he continues, thinking of Jim Morrison.

Song by the rock group The Doors.

People's History of the United States, A

A. J.'s required-for-class reading of it leads to a breakfast table argument about whether Columbus committed crimes against humanity (4.3).

This radical history of America was written by Marxist historian Howard Zinn.

Pesci, Joe

Dr Cusamano talks about the scene in Casino in which Pesci puts a man's head in a vice (1.10). Christopher (Michael Imperioli) shoots the bakery counter boy in the foot (1.8), revenge no doubt for what Tommy DeVito (Joe Pesci) did to Spider (also played by Michael Imperioli).

(1943–) American actor, who rose to fame in the films of Martin Scorsese, including roles as gangsters in GoodFellas and Casino.

Philadelphia lawyer

 Tony calls his bodyguard Perry Annunziata this term before beating him up in a one-sided fight (6.5).

A term to describe a lawyer who knows the most detailed and minute points of law, rumored to have started with Andrew Hamilton in 1735 for his legal victory on behalf of printer and newspaper publisher John Peter Zenger.

Picasso, Pablo

Uncle Junior recalls that the late Karen Baccalieri had once told him he looked like him (4.3). In 4.6, A. J. discovers that his rich girlfriend's father collects work from his later period.

(1881–1973). Spanish painter and sculptor, who spent most of his life in Paris. One of the titanic figures of 20th Century art.

Pocahontas

Paulie claims the dealer at the Mohawk Casino, who he calls Pocahontas, is “scalping us” (5.6).

“(1595–1617) was an Algonquian Indian whose life has formed the basis of highly romanticized legends” (from Wikipedia.com).

Poe, Edgar Allan

Meadow finds an essay on Poe on the internet for boyfriend Jackie Aprile, Jr., for which he receives an “A" (3.9). When Jackie brags to Meadow's father about his good grade, Tony asks if Poe is not “the guy who did all the Vincent Price shit?"

(1809–1849) American fiction writer and poet, best known for his tales of horror.

Pokémon

Christopher masterminds the heist of a truckload of Pokémon cards (2.12).

“Pokémon is the general name given to the many creatures found in the Pokémon universe. There are 250 different types of Pokémon, and each type has a unique name (Pikachu, Charmander, etc.). These Pokémon are the stars of video games for Game Boy Color and Nintendo 64, trading card games and cartoons" (from the official Pokémoin web site).

Poppin" Fresh

Christopher refers to the bakery shop clerk he shoots in the foot as “Poppin" Fresh" (1.8).

The “real" name of the Pillsbury Dough Boy seen in numerous commercials.

Porsche Cayenne

Tony gifts Carmela this car, and she later shows it off to Angie Bonpensiero after they patch up a long quarrel (6.1).

A five-seat mid-size luxury sport utility vehicle manufactured by Porsche since 2002, with North American sales beginning in 2003. It is the first V8-engined vehicle built by Porsche since 1995, when the Porsche 928 was discontinued.

Potsdam Conference

Tony cites the Potsdam conference as an example of the kind of history he has always been interested in (1.5)

1945 meeting of the US, Great Britain, and the USSR to finalize the peace after World War II.

Pre-Raphaelite

Vito Spatafore refers to Janice as having a “pre-Raphaelite quality” (4.2).

School of Victorian poets and painters that rebelled against modernity by seeking to return to a painterly aesthetic that predates Raphael (1483–1520).

Price, Vincent

See Poe, Edgar Allan.

(1911–93). American film actor, best known for his horror films, including Roger Corman's versions of Poe.

Prince Matchabelli

See Machiavelli, Nicolo.

A brand of women's fragrances.

Prince of Tides, The

Tony makes his mistress stop her TV grazing to watch it, because he likes Nolte (5.1)

1991 film, directed by Barbra Streisand, about the relationship between a psychiatrist (Streisand) and her patient (Nick Nolte).

Princess Di

Princess Di is considered as a candidate for cloning. Silvio wonders if the Royal family had her rubbed out (1.2).

(1961–1997) Commoner who, as husband of Prince Charles, became Princess of Wales. Killed in a still mysterious high-speed auto accident in Paris.

Priscilla Queen of the Desert

As evidence that Billy Budd might be gay, Finn cites the fact that the actor who played him in the film, Terence Stamp, was also in this film (4.12).

1994 Stephan Elliott film about two drag queens and a transsexual on an epic journey across the Australian outback.

Producers, The

Paulie's mother Nucci and her “friends” have tickets to it (4.12)

Incredibly successful Broadway musical by Mel Brooks, a theatricalization of his earlier film The Producers (1968).

Promise Keepers

Complaining about men to her sometime boyfriend Randall, Melfi laments “We tell you to be more sensitive, you join Promise Keepers" (1.4).

Controversial, zealous Christian men's organization.

Protestant Ethic

Carmela tells A. J. that bribery is the Italian version of it (4.1).

In The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism, German sociologist Max Weber presents a theory of the origin of the work ethic of western societies in the Protestant concept of salvation.

Quasimodo

Bobby Bacala insists that he predicted 9/11 (4.1).

The hunchback bell ringer in Victor Hugo's The Hunchback of Notre Dame (1831)

Raffi

A Globe Motors salesman seeks to swap schedules with Gloria Trillo so he can take his son to the Raffi concert (3.13).

Popular Egyptian-born Canadian troubadour, known for his entertaining concerts for children.

Rap

At an anger management meeting, Janice fulminates against “that rap shit” (5.10).

About.com defines Rap as “[a] form of popular music developed especially in African-American urban communities and characterized by spoken or chanted rhyming lyrics with a syncopated, repetitive rhythmic accompaniment.”

Rasputin

The seemingly unkillable Valery, who escapes from Paulie and Christopher in the Pine Barrens, is deemed a “fuckin" Rasputin" (3.11). (His several near-escapes from death provoke concern in Christopher that they are facing “Die Hard shit.")

(1872–1916) Enigmatic Russian faith healer and advisor to the Czar, killed, with great difficulty, by Russian nobility anxious to stop his influence.

Rastafarian

Tony B. recalls the habits of a Rastafarian inmate in prison (5.9).

A follower of the religion founded by His Imperial Majesty Haile Selassie, Emperor of Ethiopia. Rastafarianism became well known at the turn of the century due to the influence of the music of the Jamaican singer Bob Marley.

Rat Pack, The

Jack Massarone gives Tony a painting of them (5.2).

A group of American entertainers, including Frank Sinatra, Dean Martin, Sammy Davis, Jr., Joey Bishop, and Peter Lawford, who frequently performed together, especially in Las Vegas.

Ray, Rachael

Carmela and Meadow stay up late because they saw Rachel Ray on The David Letterman Show and got hungry (6.17).

(1968- ) An American television personality, chef and author who hosts the Rachael Ray show and three Food Network series, 30 Minute Meals, Rachael Ray's Tasty Travels and $40 a Day.

Rebel in Chief

Carmela reads this book in bed before Meadow comes in to discuss A. J.'s mental health (6.17).

Best-selling novel by Fred Barnes, published in 2006, about the "bold and controversial" presidency of George W. Bush.

Rebel Without a Cause

In an “Acting for Writers" class, Christopher becomes James Dean in a scene from Rebel Without a Cause after rejecting a part from The Glass Menagerie (2005).

1955 film by Nicholas Ray that made James Dean a star and teen idol.

Religions of Man

Father Phil gives Carmela a copy of Religions of Man and recommends the chapter on Buddhism (1.5).

Book (originally published in 1958) by historian of religion Huston Smith that offers chapters on all the major world religions.

Remains of the Day

See Last Temptation of Christ, The.

1993 Merchant-Ivory film about the repressed private life of an English butler.

Remembrance of Things Past

Melfi telling Tony about Marcel Proust, Madeleines, and The Remembrance of Things Past (Tony responds that it “sounds very gay") (3.3).

Long seven-book novel by the French writer Marcel Proust.

Remick, Lee

See Lemon, Jack (4.13).

(1935–1991). American film actress.

Rent

A popular Broadway musical evaluated post-show by theatre critic Christopher Moltisanti: “Rent. Fucking Broadway musicals. I mean we"re supposed to get all fuckin" weepy-eyed cause they turned off the heat in some guy's loft" (1.10).

Popular Broadway musical, a kind of Americanized La Boheme, written by Jonathan Larson.

“Revenge is a dish best served cold”

Tony quotes this famous line to Dr. Melfi but mangles it as “Revenge is like serving cold cuts” (5.10).

The original use of the aphorism—“Revenge is a dish best served cold”—appears to be in the eighteenth-century novel Les Liaisons Dangereuses by Choderlos De Laclos.

Rico

When Christopher turns down an evening with the gang to be with Adriana, Paulie laments “Mother of mercy. Could this be the end of Rico?" (1.10).

Rico “Little Caesar" Bandelli (Edward G. Robinson) is a character in Mervyn Leroy's 1930 gangster film. Paulie quotes Little Caesar's last words.

“Ride of the Valkires

A very drunk Brian Cammarata hums it when he learns that he is going to get a ride on a helicopter (4.12).

Orchestral music from Wagner's Ring Cycle, made famous in its use by Lieutenant Colonel Bill Kilgore (Robert Duval) to “scare the Gooks” in Apocalypse Now (1979).

Rio Bravo

Tony watches Dean Martin sing in a scene from it (4.1).

1959 Howard Hawks" western, starring John Wayne.

Robbins, Anthony

Uncle Junior watches his infomercial on TV, which includes the title (attributed to Henry James) “It's time to start living the life you imagined” (5.3).

(1960–). American motivational speaker and success guru.

Robinson, Edward G.

Edward G. Robinson's picture is on the wall in the pork store during Christopher's whack of Emil Kolar (1.1).

(1893–1973) Romanian-born American film actor, famous for his portrayal of gangsters in films like Little Caesar and Key Largo.

Rockford Files

Tony's soldier Big Pussy tires to locate AJ's biology teacher's missing Saturn, lamenting that he feels “like Rockford here" (1.2).

American television series (1974–80), created by Stephen J. Cannell. David Chase was one of its writers.

Rommel, Field Marshall Erwin

Tony watches a History Channel documentary about him (5.13).

(1891–1944). German general, one of Hitler's most dependable military leaders in France and Africa. By the end of the war he had turned on Hitler and backed attempts to overthrow him.

Rorschach test

Tony insists that the paintings in Dr Melfi's outer office are some kind of “Gorschach test" (1.3). AJ takes a Rorschach test at Verbum Dei (1.7).

Psychological test that assesses emotional and intellectual states by requiring the subject to interpret a series of inkblots.

Rosebud

Janice announces on movie night after watching Citizen Kane, “Six months [of marriage] and Bobby still hasn"t found my rosebud” (5.2).

In Welles" film, “Rosebud” is Kane's last word, and only at the end of the film do we learn that it was the name of a sled he played with as a boy.

Rubenesque

Adjective Johnny Sack uses to refers to his wife's figure in a conversation with Tony (4.4)

(1577–1640). Flemish painter, famous for his nudes of voluptuous women.

Saccho and Venzetti

In a dinner table discussion of discrimination against Italians, the case of Saccho and Venzetti are cited as a prime example (1.8).

Two young Italian anarchists found guilty of murder and executed. Their case became a 1920s cause célèbre.

Salk, Jonas

Paulie talks about seeing a back specialist, “the Jonas Salk of backs" (1.11).

(1914–95) American physician who discovered a vaccine against polio.

Sanford and Son

Told that Angelo Garepe's son is in “architectural salvage,” Tony B. asks “Like Sanford and Son” (5.11).

1972–1977 television series about a junk dealer played by Red Foxx.

Sartre, Jean-Paul

See existentialists.

(1905–80) French philosopher, dramatist, and novelist, a key figure in the movement known as existentialism.

Saw II

Christopher watches this film right before his girlfriend announces her pregnancy, possibly a reflection of his failed "Saw meets The Godfather" slasher film that is referred to in previous episodes (6.9).

A 2005 horror film and sequel to Saw, features the latest murders of the Jigsaw Killer.

Scorsese, Martin

Martin Scorsese is spotted at a movie theatre (1.2).

(1942–) Major American film director, often working in the gangster genre.

Scream

When Christopher and his buddie hold up the Jewel concert, they wear Scream masks (3.3).

1996 Wes Craven horror film which produced two sequels.

Scud Missile

When one of Christopher's earners tells him he gave his money to Junior's crew after being threatened, Christopher replies “I don"t care if they shove a Scud Missile up your ass" (1.4).

Medium-range missile used by Iraq in the Persian Gulf War to attack Israel.

Seabiscuit

Hesh refers to him as he visits Pie-Oh-My at the stable (4.5).

Famous underdog race horse who became a national hero during The Great Depression.

Seattle, Chief

A native American speaker at an anti-Columbus Day rally quotes from his famous speech (4.3).

(1786–1866). Suquamish Indian leader famous for a speech he supposedly delivered in 1854. Seattle, Washington was named after him.

“Second Coming, The”

Melfi quotes “The center cannot hold” and “the falcon cannot hear the falconer,” both lines from it, to a non-comprehending Tony (5.10).

Famous poem by the great Irish poet William Butler Yeats.

Sentimental Education

The title of a fifth season episode (5.6).

Sentimental Education is a novel by Gustave Flaubert, whose Madame Bovary Carmela reads in the episode.

Sergeant Bilko

Tony, seeing AJ in his military school uniform, exclaims “Sergeant Bilko" (3.13).

Army con-man, played by Phil Silvers, on American television's The Phil Silvers Show (1955–59).

Seven Deadly Sins

Silvio tells Tony that “There's seven deadly sins, and yours is pride” (5.13).

In Medieval Catholic tradition the seven deadly sins weregluttony, lust, avarice, sadness, anger, acedia, vainglory, and pride.

Shaft

Tony calls Officer Wilmore “Shaft" when he encounters him at a garden centre (3.5).

1971 Gordon Parks film about a Black private detective, which lead to several sequels and a remake.

Shoemaker, Willie

Paulie describes a prostitute at Madam Debby's as “riding better than Willie Shoemaker" (1.11).

(1931–) Jockey, a legend of horse-racing.

Shylock

Christopher calls Lorraine Calluzzo by her nickname, “Lady Shylock” (5.2).

Shylock is, of course, the money lender in Shakespeare's Merchant of Venice.

Simmons, Richard

Johnny Sack mentions that Ginny has sought weight loss help from him (4.4).

American weight loss guru, most famous for his ”Sweating to the Oldies” tapes.

Simple Plan, A

“Pine Barrens" (3.11), directed by Coen Brothers" veteran Steve Buscemi, evokes A Simple Plan.

1998 film by Sam Raimi, which includes several chase scenes set against winter landscapes.

Simpson, Don

Don Simpson is evoked (sort of): after Gigi Cestone dies on the toilet (3.8), Silvio recalls others who came to a similar ignominious end, including “Don, the producer of The Simpsons."

(1943–96) Late Hollywood producer, known for his blockbuster films co-produced with Jerry Bruckheimer.

Simpson, O. J.

The televised trial of O. J. Simpson making several appearances: in “To Save Us All from Satan's Power" it is frequently on screen in the flashbacks to 1995.

(1947–) Former pro-football star whose televised trial for the brutal murder of his wife Nicole became a national spectacle in 1995.

Simpsons, The

See Simpson, Don.

Long-running satiric Fox Television cartoon sit-com (1989–).

Sinatra, Frank

Trying on the new sport coat Christopher brings him, Feech insists that he “looks better than” him (5.4).

(1915–1998). Italian-American singer and actor, one of the great vocalists of the twentieth century.

Sinatra, Nancy

This singer serenades Phil with her song "Bossman" at a gathering of the New York and New Jersey families (6.16).

(1940- ) An American singer born in New Jersey and daughter of singer Frank Sinatra, best known for her 1966 hit "These Boots Are Made for Walkin.'"

Slasher films

Screenwriter JT proposes a film about a whacked mobster come-back-to-life, sparking a debate between Christopher and Silvio about what constitutes a true slasher film (6.3).

A sub-genre of the horror film genre typically involving a psychopathic killer stalking and killing a sequence of victims.

“Smoke on the Water"

Tony's doctor tells his family to keep him engaged while he's in a coma and to play his favorite music. Carmela first plays "Smoke on the Water" by Deep Purple (6.2).

A song by the British hard rock band Deep Purple. It was first released on their 1972 album Machine Head. The song is known for its central theme, a four-note "blues scale" melody harmonised in parallel fourths.

Sondheim, Stephen

Cookie Cirillo claims she prefers his work to The Producers or Man of La Mancha (4.12).

(1930–). American composer and lyricist, best known for such musicals as West Side Story, Into the Woods, and Sweeney Todd.

Sorvino, Paul

Christopher mentions his role in That's Life (5.7).

(1939–). American television and film actor, best known for his role in GoodFellas.

South Park

AJ, asked to respond to a Rorschach inkblot, replying that he sees someone “Watching TV, maybe. Maybe he's watching South Park. Number one is supposed to be on tonight. The one where Cartman gets abducted by aliens, and they give him an anal probe and makes him fart fire" (1.7).

Comedy Central animated TV series (1997–) about a group of raunchy kids living in South Park, Colorado.

Spartacus

Ralphie Cifaretto is not impressed by Spartacus, recommended to him by movie buff Christopher (3.6).

1960 Stanley Kubrick film, starring Kirk Douglas, about the leader of a slave rebellion against the Romans.

Spears, Britney

A Muslim woman at Columbia tells Meadow about someone punished for having a photo of her (4.4).

(1981–). Louisiana-born singer and actress, a major turn-of-the-century pop star.

Spice Girls

Big Pussy calls the two gays who stole AJ's biology teacher's car the “spice girls" (1.2).

Manufactured British girl singing group, whose time in the media spotlight faded quickly.

Spielberg, Steven

Johnny Sack insists Ralphie is “more creative than Spielberg” (4.4).

American film director, one of the most important figures in film in the last quarter of the 20th century, best known for Jaws, E. T., Raiders of the Lost Ark, and Schindler's List.

Starbuck's

Big Pussy's assistant reports on AJ's teacher's missing Saturn: “My guys said that one of those goofballs had a uniform on from Buttfuck's. Whatever, the coffee shop" (1.2).

Popular 1990s chain of upscale coffee shops originating in Seattle.

Starr, Ringo

See Beatles, The (5.4).

The Beatles" drummer.

Stella

Ralphie shouts “Stella” when he arrives at Janice's house to announce he has ditched Rosie Aprile (4.3).

Stanley Kowalski screams out his wife's name “Stella” in Tennessee Williams" A Streetcar Named Desire—a line made famous by Marlon Brando in Elia Kazan's movie of Streetcar.

Stone, Sharon

See Basic Instinct.

(1958–) Popular American actress in films like Basic Instinct and Casino.

“Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening"

Meadow explains Robert Frost's “Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening" to AJ (3.2). AJ: “I thought black meant death?" Meadow (as she walks out of the room): “White too."

Famous, often taught, poem by Robert Frost.

Sun-tzu

Everybody reads Sun-tzu's The Art of War: Janice Soprano, Tony's sister, quotes it; Melfi recommends it to Tony, who later cites it with admiration.

Chinese warrior who authored the first systematic treatise on military strategy over 2000 years ago.

Superman

Silvio reacts to the news of Vito's death by responding that Carlo Gervasi is a "regular Jimmy Olsen."

Olsen is Superman's young photographer friend at the Daily Planet in the famous DC Comic.

Surfin USA”

After Tony awakes from a frightening dream of his mother, he hears it playing in the distance as he stands on his Miami Beach hotel balcony (4.11).

1963 hit song by The Beach Boys.

Survivor

Furio explaining how he would revise, mob style, Survivor (3.2).

Phenomenally successful American reality TV series (2000–).

Taliban

Silvio claims to be using a technique for blocking interception of a cell phone conference call perfected by them (4.4).

Ultra-orthodox Muslim sect that in the 1990s ruled Afghanistan with an iron hand and harbored terrorists, including Osama Bin Laden.

Talmud

When Shlomo Tittleman tries to give Tony some money for helping him with Ariel, he cites historical precedent – "As the Talmud says…" Tony is displeased and will have none of it: “I don"t give a shit what he says" (1.3).

The compilation of Jewish oral law with rabbinical commentaries.

Tarantino, Quentin

D-girl Amy Safir used to work for Quentin Tarantino (2.7).

(1963–) American writer and director, one of the most important film-makers of the 90s.

Taxi Driver

Father Phil does his imitation of the famous “You talkin" to me" scene from Taxi Driver (1.5) as if it were part of The Last Temptation of Christ.

1976 Martin Scorsese film, starring Robert De Niro.

That's Life

J. T. Dolan speaks of a friend who is making a lot in residuals off it (5.7).

Television series (2000–2002), starring Ellen Burstyn and Paul Sorvino.

The Godfather

After Tony scolds A. J. for carrying a knife to visit Uncle Junior, A. J. calls his father a hypocrite, reminding him that his favorite scene in The Godfather is the one in which Michael Corleone shoots his fathers' killers (6.8).

An Academy Award winning film from 1972 chronicling the fictional Italian American Corleone crime family.

“The highway was jammed with broken heroes on a last chance power drive”

Christopher explains his being late for a meeting by saying this (5.12).

Christopher quotes from the Bruce Springsteen song “Born to Run,” the title song from a 1975 album.

Thirteen Days

When Paulie recalls the Cuban Missile Crisis, Generation-Xer Christopher replies in astonishment: “That was real? I saw that movie. I thought it was bullshit!" (he is thinking of Thirteen Days (2000) (3.11).

Roger Donaldson's 2000 film about the Cuban Missile Crisis.

Thompson, Emma

Father Phil speaks of his admiration (partly sexual) of Emma Thompson (1.5).

(1959–) British actress who appears in Remains of the Day and many other films.

Thorn Birds

Denying that anything happened between them when Father Phil spent the night at the Soprano house, Carmela exclaims “Do I look like the friggin" thorn bird over here?" (1.5).

The Thorn Birds was a 1983 mini-series (based on a best-selling novel by Colleen McCullough) about a woman who has an affair with a priest.

Three Amigos, The

Christopher watches it on TV at the Bing after Adriana has been whacked (5.12).

1986 comic film directed by John Landis and starring Steve Martin, Chevy Chase, and Martin Short.

Tis: A Memoir

The mob wives book club discusses Frank McCourt's Tis: A Memoir (2.11).

Memoir (published in 2000) by Frank McCourt, sequel to his best-selling Angela's Ashes.

Tracy and Hepburn

In the middle of a big shouting match with Tony, Carmela exclaims, “Who knew all these years that you wanted Tracy and Hepburn” (4.13).

Spencer Tracy (1900–1967) and Katherine Hepburn (1907–2003) were American film stars who appeared together in numerous films and were intimate friends/lovers from the 1940s on.

Travolta, John

Phil tells Vito that when he married his cousin years ago, everyone thought the now overweight mobster looked like John Travolta (6.3).

(1954- ) An American actor who found fame in the 1970s after staring in Saturday Night Fever and Grease.

Trompe L"oeil

Little Carmine shows off his art knowledge by pointing out his tacky Venetian-view wallpaper (5.8).

A painting intended to be so authentic as to deceive the viewer into mistaking it for reality.

TV Land

Tony tells Carlo to "start sucking cock" instead of watching so much TV Land when he attempts to explain an episode of The Twilight Zone, because "Vito brought in three times more" than Carlo in construction (6.16).

An American cable television network launched in 1996 based on the success of Nickelodeon's "Nick at Nite," featuring classic sitcoms, dramas, and variety shows.

Twilight Zone

 Carlo attempts to equate the episode entitled "A Nice Place to Visit" to Tony's situation with Hesh's vig. The episode features a dead gangster, Rocky Valentine--who Carlo mistakingly calls "Phill"--who is unable to lose when gambling. At first, he believes himself in Heaven, until it is revealed he is actually in Hell (6.16). In the series' final episode, Tony and the crew watches another episode of the show while in hiding (6.21).

An American television series which ran for five seasons 1959 to 1964 consisting of unrelated vignettes depicting paranormal, futuristic, dystopian, or simply disturbing events.

Tyson, Mike

See Ali, Mohammed (5.9).

(1966–). Former heavyweight champion of the world (1987–1990).

Ulrich, Skeet

Hunter tells of seeing Skeet Ulrich on her last trip to Aspen (1.1).

(1969–) Young American film actor.

Valderamma, Wilmer

 While watching Sir Ben Kingsley claim his swag in Los Angeles, Christopher sees Valderamma posing for photos (6.7).

(1980- ) An American actor and television personality best known for playing Fez in the popular sitcom That '70s Show.

Valdez, Juan

“Juan Valdez has been separated from his donkey," Paulie Walnuts announces in a phone call to Tony – code for a successful robbery of some Columbian drug dealers (1.10).

Quasi-racist icon of coffee-industry advertising, usually depicted with his burro in the mountains of Columbia.

Valli, Frankie

A Mohunk coerces Tony into asking him to perform at his Delaware casino (4.3)

Popular Italian singer of the 1960s, the lead vocalist for The Four Seasons. Plays Rusty Millio in Season Five.

Van Helsing

At Carmela's request, Paulie takes A. J. home from the hospital during Tony's second night there. Paulie refers to A. J. as "Van Helsing" while trying to get him in the car (6.2).

Professor Abraham Van Helsing is a character from Bram Stoker's 1897 novel, Dracula. Van Helsing is a Dutch doctor best known as a vampire hunter and the arch-enemy of Count Dracula.

Varsailles

Little Carmine refers to “Versales” and “Lewis” in a meeting in Miami with Tony (4.11).

The unofficial capital city and palace of France at the turn of the 18th century, founded as such by Louis (not Lewis) XIV.

Village People The

Christopher says that Vito was spotted in a "fag bar" dressed in a motorcycle outfit like someone from the VIllage People (6.6).

A disco group formed in the 1970s known for its on-stage costumes and suggestive lyrics. The group was originally created to target disco's primarily gay audience.

Vishnu

Tony angrily accuses Janice of “ridin" into town like some Vishnu-come-lately and try to play the concerned daughter" (2.3).

Hindu creator/destroyer deity.

“Wall, The”

Tony sings it in the shower (4.8).

1979 song and album by Pink Floyd, the inspiration for a 1982 film of the same name.

Wegman, William

While making love, Tony is distracted by one of his photographs on the wall (5.7).

American photograph famous for his photographs of his usually clothed dogs posed in human situations.

Weight Watchers

Johnny Sack mentions that Ginny has sought weight loss help from them (4.4).

American commercial weight loss organization sponsoring 12 step style meetings and selling dieting advice and food.

West Side Story

Tony claims one of the attractions of Gloria Trillo is having sex with his own kind, to which Dr Melfi immediately responds, “What is this, West Side Story? (1961) (3.11).

1961 Robert Wise film, based on Romeo and Juliet (music by Leonard Bernstein) about rival New York street gangs.

“Whiter Shade of Pale"

At the breakfast table in “46 Long" (1.2), Tony sings “Whiter Shade of Pale" while dancing with Carmela.

Popular 1960s song by the British group Procul Harem.

Who Wants to be a Millionaire?

Uncle Junior watches it while discussing a hit on Johnny Sack with Tony (4.4).

Popular ABC game show (1999–2002, 2002–), hosted by Regis Philbin (and later Meredith Viera).

Williams, Tennessee

Christopher's illiterate attempts at a screenplay make him, in the eyes of Adriana, “a regular Tennessee Williams" (1.8).

(1911–1983). Major American dramatist, best known for The Glass Menagerie and A Streetcar Named Desire.

Wizard of Oz

In Dr Melfi's bizarre dream, Tony dies in a horrible head-on collision with a huge truck to the tune of a munchkin song (“Out of the Woods") from Wizard of Oz (1939) (2.3).

Classic 1939 film by Victor Fleming, starring Judy Garland.

Wolf, Dick

J. T. Dolan talks to Christopher about how wealthy he must be from “that Law and Order money” and hopes (but does not succeed) to become a writer for the show (5.7).

(1946–). American TV producer, most famous for Law and Order and all its spinoffs.

Yeats, W. B.

A. J. studies his poem "The Second Coming" for school in the episode that shares the same name, culminating in his suicide attempt. Carmela later asks, in A. J.'s therapy session, what kind of poem it is to teach college students. A. J. recites part of the same poem ("What rough beast . . . Slouching towards Bethlehem") to Meadow and Patrick during Bobby's funeral (6.19, 6.21).

(1865-1939) Irish poet William Butler Yeats wrote this poem in 1919, using Christian imagery regarding the Apocalypse as allegory to describe the atmosphere in post-war Europe.

Zellweger, Renée

See Last Temptation of Christ, The.

(1969–) American actress, who appeared in One True Thing.

ZZ Top

See Golem.

Hard-rocking, long-bearded rock and roll band.